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Scoliosis, which is a condition characterized by an abnormal curvature of the spine, can be treated through physical therapy, scoliosis exercises, or surgery, depending on the severity and age of the patient.

What is Scoliosis?

Scoliosis is an orthopedic disorder characterized by a shift of the spine to the right or left, leading to a deterioration of the body's anatomical structure beginning from the hips.

What Causes Scoliosis? 

  • Diseases that occur in the womb and damage the skeletal system, such as cerebral palsy

  • Care mistakes, traumas, and neuromuscular diseases in infancy

  • Carrying heavy backpacks in childhood and adolescence, sitting and sleeping habits that cause posture disorders

  • Genetic transmission


Although the conditions mentioned above can cause scoliosis, the number of scoliosis cases whose cause is unknown is higher.

Scoliosis Symptoms 

  • Shoulder and hip asymmetry

  • Depression in the back, swelling

  • Asymmetry of the breasts in women

  • Right or left inclined posture, sitting

  • Difficulty standing upright

  • Shortness of breath

  • Back and waist pain

  • Difficulty walking, pain in the lower back and hips

  • loss of strength in muscles

Types of Scoliosis

 Scoliosis is categorized according to its causes and degrees.


  • Idiopathic/Scoliosis of Unknown Cause

  • Congenital/Congenital Scoliosis

  • Neuromuscular Scoliosis

Scoliosis Grades 

For the curvature of the spine to be considered scoliosis, it must be at least 10 degrees.

Mild Scoliosis

Scoliosis curvatures ranging from 10-20 degrees are considered mild cases and typically do not require surgical intervention. The patient is monitored and treated through the use of a scoliosis brace and physical therapy exercises, which can help prevent the progression of spinal curvature and even improve it.

Moderate Scoliosis

Scoliosis curvatures ranging from 20-40 degrees are classified as moderate cases. If the curvature approaches 40 degrees and affects the lungs and heart, surgery may be necessary. Physical therapy and wearing a corset can help improve or stop the progression of the condition to a certain extent.

Severe Scoliosis

Curvatures over 40 degrees are severe scoliosis cases and require scoliosis surgery.

Scoliosis Treatment

Treatment for scoliosis varies for infants, growing children, adolescents, and adults. Early diagnosis has benefits, but there are also challenges with scoliosis surgery during periods of spine growth.

Therefore, personalized treatment plans for scoliosis must be determined based on factors such as the onset and severity of scoliosis, the patient's age, and overall health.

Scoliosis Surgery 

Scoliosis surgery is performed to re-establish the patient’s daily life comfort in 40 degrees or higher spinal curvature that does not respond positively to corset treatment and physical therapy exercises.


Scoliosis surgery is performed under general anesthesia takes approximately 3-4 hours, and different techniques and approaches are applicable for children and adults.


Suppose scoliosis surgery is obligatory in children of developmental age. In that case, fusion surgery is performed without fusion or with limited fusion so that it would not prevent the growth of the spine.


There is no harm in performing spinal fusion surgery as it completes the development of the spine in adults.


After the scoliosis surgery, the patient is kept under observation in the hospital for four days / 1 week, care is given, and it is ensured that she can stand up and walk. For the patient to return to her daily life as soon as possible, the post-operative treatment process is supported with physical therapy and rehabilitation applications.

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